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This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website Nickel is a metal, commonly used to make coins, magnets, jewelry, stainless steel, electronics, and components of industrial machines. Most people are familiar with the attractive mirror-finish that can be achieved by nickel plating. However, despite the beautiful appearance, nickel exposure, especially in industrial and occupational settings, can present significant health hazards. Nickel is one of many carcinogenic metals known to be an environmental and occupational pollutant. The New York University School of Medicine warns that chronic exposure has been connected with increased risk of lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurological deficits, developmental deficits in childhood, and high blood pressure.

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The Toxicology of Mercury Current Exposures and Clinical

[ ]Nickel exposure introduces and may also affect the kidneys and liver. [ ] In 7567, Egypt s Ministry of Agriculture administered liver function tests to 75 nickel-plating workers. Results showed they overwhelmingly suffered from compromised liver function. [ ]Researchers at Dominican University of California have linked nickel exposure to breast cancer. How? Well, nickel is believed to bind to estrogen receptors and mimic the actions of estrogen. It is well established that lifetime estrogen exposure is a breast cancer risk factor, and, unfortunately, even this imposter estrogen contributes to the risk. [ ]Additionally, nickel has been identified as a toxin that severely damages reproductive health and can lead to infertility, miscarriage, birth defects, and nervous system defects. [ ] [ ] Mercury poisoning still occurs as a result of accidental and occupational exposure.

This review summarizes both the facts and the controversies surrounding exposure to methyl mercury, mercury vapor, and the ethyl mercury in thimerosal. Supported by grants (R56 ES65769 and P85 ES56797) from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health. We are indebted to Helena King and Joyce Morgan for assistance with the figure. From the Departments of Environmental Medicine (T. W. C. ) and Neurology and Pediatrics (G. J. M. ), University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, N.

Distribution Elimination and Toxicity of Silver

Y. and the Medical Research Council Laboratories, Carshalton, United Kingdom (L. ). Com. Previous article in issue Next article in issue Keywords Essential oil Cytotoxicity Genotoxicity Antigenotoxicity Prooxidant activity Choose an option to locate/access this article: Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. Additional information as noted in text. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at. This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organization, or the World Health Organization. First draft prepared by Mr P.

D. Howe and Dr S. It is a challenge to propose a comprehensive presentation of toxicology in this Encyclopaedia. This chapter does not present a compendium of information on toxicology or adverse effects of specific agents. This latter information is better obtained from databases that are continually updated, as described in the last section of this chapter. It is the premise of the chapter that the information provided is relevant to all types of toxicological endeavours and to the use of toxicology in various medical specialities and fields. In this chapter, topics are based primarily upon a practical orientation and integration with the intent and purpose of the Encyclopaedia as a whole. Topics are also selected for ease of cross-reference within the Encyclopaedia. In modern society, toxicology has become an important element in environmental and occupational health. This is because many organizations, governmental and non-governmental, utilize information from toxicology to evaluate and regulate hazards in the workplace and nonoccupational environment.

As part of prevention strategies, toxicology is invaluable, since it is the source of information on potential hazards in the absence of widespread human exposures.