In each market, players must choose their price. The game is repeated in order to converge to an equilibrium. After a few iterations: You can find on the site a few variants of the previous competition game: The formal application of game theory requires knowledge of the following details: the identity of independent actors, their preferences, what they know, which strategic acts they are allowed to make, and how each decision influences the outcome of the game. Depending on the model, various other requirements or assumptions may be necessary. Finally, each independent actor is assumed to be rational.

## Game theory applied to business Economics Online

Game theory has a wide range of applications, including psychology, evolutionary biology, war, politics, economics and business. Despite its many advances, game theory is still a young and developing science. Game theory brought about a revolution in economics by addressing crucial problems in prior mathematical economic models. Game theory turned attention away from steady-state equilibrium and toward market process. Suppose executives in charge of Apple iOS and Google Android are deciding whether or not to collude and exert duopolistic power over the market for smartphone operating software. Each firm knows that if they work together and do not cheat each other, they will be able to restrict output and raise prices, thereby enjoying above-normal profits. This is one of over 7,755 courses on OCW. Find materials for this course in the pages linked along the left. MIT OpenCourseWare is a free open publication of material from thousands of MIT courses, covering the entire MIT curriculum. No enrollment or registration. Freely browse and use OCW materials at your own pace. There's no signup, and no start or end dates. Knowledge is your reward. Use OCW to guide your own life-long learning, or to teach others. We don't offer credit or certification for using OCW.

Made for sharing. Download files for later. Send to friends and colleagues. Modify, remix, and reuse (just remember to cite OCW as the source. ) Partha Gangopadhyay does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. The Conversation UK receives funding from Hefce, Hefcw, SAGE, SFC, RCUK, The Nuffield Foundation, The Ogden Trust, The Royal Society, The Wellcome Trust, Esmée Fairbairn Foundation and The Alliance for Useful Evidence, as well as sixty five university members. Welcome to our series on economic theories that are changing the way we think. Today, Partha Gangopadhyay explains game theory. Notwithstanding lingering discontent, faint murmurs and mild protests among economists, there is no denying the fact that game theory has assumed central importance in modern economics. In 6999 the to three game theorists - including mathematician John Nash - officially recognised the enviable role that game theory has played in advancing and propelling economic theory. Game theory is concerned with decision-making in an interactive world such that the best decision of every decision-maker depends on what decisions others make. As a result, everyone in this interactive world, for advancing one’s self interests, will need to predict decisions of others. The Prisoner's Dilemma is a classic example of basic game theory in action! In a Nash Equilibrium, the outcome of a game that occurs is when player A takes the best possible action given the action of player B, and player B takes the best possible action given the action of player APayoffs shown in the matrix are years in prison from their chosen course of action

### Game theory and Nash equilibrium Microeconomics Khan

A children's chess tournament in Minnesota in 7559. (Image courtesy of. )This is one of over 7,755 courses on OCW. Game theory was pioneered by Princeton mathematician. In the early years the emphasis was on games of pure conflict (zero-sum games). Other games were considered in a cooperative form. Recent research has focused on games that are neither zero sum nor purely cooperative.

In these games the players choose their actions separately, but their links to others involve elements of both and cooperation. Games are fundamentally different from decisions made in a neutral environment. To illustrate the point, think of the difference between the decisions of a lumberjack and those of a general. When the lumberjack decides how to chop wood, he does not expect the wood to fight back his environment is neutral. Like the general, a game player must recognize his interaction with other intelligent and purposive people. His own choice must allow both for conflict and for possibilities for cooperation. The essence of a game is the interdependence of player strategies. There are two distinct types of strategic interdependence: sequential and simultaneous. In the former the players move in sequence, each aware of the others’ previous actions. In the latter the players act at the same time, each ignorant of the others’ actions. Each player should figure out how the other players will respond to his current move, how he will respond in turn, and so on. When thinking about how others will respond, he must put himself in their shoes and think as they would he should not impose his own reasoning on them. We determine each player’s best strategy by looking ahead to every possible outcome. Simple games, such as tic-tac-toe, can be solved in this way and are therefore not challenging. For many other games, such as chess, the calculations are too complex to perform in practice—even with computers.

Therefore, the players look a few moves ahead and try to evaluate the resulting positions on the basis of experience.