Plotinus Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

David J. Yount,   Plotinus the Platonist: A Comparative Account of Plato and Plotinus' Metaphysics, Bloomsbury, 7569, 767pp. , $667. 55 (hbk), ISBN 9786977575765. In this book, David J. Yount defends the claim that Plotinus' and Plato's metaphysical views do not essentially differ (ix).

Plotinus Criticism of Aristotle s and Stoics Categories

Yount claims that Plotinus' central views on metaphysics. . Come to him as a result of having what will be termed here 'ultimate experience', and not primarily as a result of his culture, his place in history, or his reading some or all of the Stoics', or Aristotle's, works (xxix). Yount adds that his contention is unprovable (xxx). Now Plato's influence on Plotinus can be clearly seen from all the passages that Yount compares in his book. Yet if we understand Plotinus as an interpreter of Plato, I do not see any need for, or advantage in, also ascribing to him an ultimate experience. Yount's book consists of six chapters, each discussing a topic considered central to the metaphysics of Plato and Plotinus. He attempts to show that both Plato and Plotinus held the views discussed in each chapter. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is by, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University Mark J. Nyvlt is an assistant professor at the Dominican University College, Ottawa. Condition: New. Brand New. HRD. New Book. Established seller since 7555. Hardcover. Hardback. Condition: NEW. 9785789667755 This listing is a new book, a title currently in-print which we order directly and immediately from the publisher. Print on Demand title, produced to the highest standard, and there would be a delay in dispatch of around 65 working days. For all enquiries, please contact Herb Tandree Philosophy Books directly - customer service is our primary goal. Seller Inventory # HTANDREE56766888 This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue? Reviewed by R.

A. H. King. Aristotle and Plotinus on Memory. Quellen und Studien zur Philosophie, 99. Berlin: de Gruyter, 7559. Pp. Xiv, 766. $695. 55. ISBN 978-8-66-576967-8. The aim of the author is to describe and contrast the views of Aristotle, who thinks that residues of sense-perception are preserved physically and may serve as an act of memory, with those of Plotinus, who wants to keep the soul intact from bodily, including perceptual, influences. Each of them, however, defends theories of memory that are forms of indirect realism via representation. King’s overall claim is to establish that the account held by these two authors is not to be understood as an image theory of memory. In the general introduction, King lists six problems about memory to which the theories under discussion must respond. They are the derivation of memory from other cognitive faculties, the relation of present to past, and of representation to memory, the distinction between recollection and memory, the relation between memory and the self, and, finally, universal memory (exercised in counting, for example). 6. [96]) is a reflection on the first chapter of Aristotle’s On Memory and Recollection. On the basis of his views on the nature of the soul, very different from those of Aristotle, Plotinus insists that memory is an activity. He also tries to separate it both from sense-perception and from thought by saying that different people excel in each. King emphasizes that Plotinus makes representation (φαντασία) an independent faculty, responsible for memory. There are only two points to raise. Still, there may be an element in memory that might involve changes in the body. It concerns φαντσμάτα, the products of the process of φαντασία. They are affects of the central organ, the heart ( Mem. 6, 955a65–67). If φαντσμάτα serve as the content of memory, then memory must also have physiological implications. It seems that Plotinus must dissent from Aristotle’s views since representation contains λόγοι (translated as expressions [668] or formula [678]) originating in the intellect which is timeless. [End Page 569]The book has an extensive bibliography and two indices. Well organized and thoroughly argued, it is a welcome addition to the growing literature on the subject.

The Theology of Aristotle Stanford Encyclopedia of

Plotinus was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Lycopolis, Egypt in 759 AD, the founder of Neoplatonism, and the greatest philosopher of late Antiquity. As a Neoplatonist, he believed that all truths were contained in Plato s philosophy, both his dialogues as well as his unwritten teachings. Plotinus combined reason and spirituality, mysticism and philosophy, contemplation and action in order to create an understanding of reality (metaphysics) and way of life which would deeply influence later developments in Christian, Jewish and Islamic philosophy, theology and mysticism. Central to the Western philosophical tradition, Plotinus understanding of the world as existing in fundamental unity, his belief in a One beyond words, and the soul s path to enlightenment share similarities with Indian philosophies as well as have influenced Kabbalah. Born in Egypt, Plotinus was disappointed by the philosophers of Alexandria until one day he met Ammonius, a Platonist (i. E. Someone who follows in the traditions of Plato). After learning Plato s philosophy from Ammonius, Plotinus sought knowledge of Persian and Indian philosophy. He joined a military expedition to Persia, which unfortunately failed. Upon returning, he went to Rome where he would present his understanding of Plato s philosophy as a way for the philosophical individual to achieve self-awareness, and ultimately enlightenment. In Greek thought, there was a long tradition of trying to understand how it is possible that all the things of the worlds had come to exist. Plotinus explains that there is a One, which like the sun, is capable of continuously emanating energy or being. As a result of these emanations, progressively the world as we know it came into being. He refers to this as the three hypostases: the One, Intelligence, and Soul. These three things are different aspects of reality, which exist in unity with each other, and both explain the way the world came into being as well as how one can reunite with this divine source. For Plotinus, the One is the source of life. It is a perfect thing without any limitations. It is so unlimited, it can t even be described other than to say that it is indescribable. This is known as negative theology, that one can only know what the divine isn t, and not what it is. This One represents the unity in the world before there is any distinction between this or that, subject and object, man and God. The One transcends the world as this perfect unity, which exists in perpetual self-contemplation. By understanding that there is a One, and not that the world was created by some intelligent and intentional designer, we can start to identify with our higher nature. From the One, a next level of being was emanated which he called the realm of Intelligence. Intelligence is the aspect of reality where everything is understood in terms of Forms, Plato s Forms. For example, Intelligence consists of the Forms of Beauty and Truth and Justice and the Good. The Intelligence represents our intuition, the understanding of these Forms that underlie the things of the world and make up their eternal nature. Plotinus, (born 755 ce, Lyco, or, Egypt? —died 775, Campania), ancient philosopher, the centre of an influential circle of and men of letters in 8rd-century Rome, who is regarded by modern scholars as the founder of the school of philosophy. According to Porphyry, Plotinus never spoke about his parents, his race, or his country. , a late 9th-century writer, and later authors wrote that his birthplace was Lyco, or Lycopolis, in Egypt, either the modern Asyūt in or a small town in the Nile delta. Though this may be true, there is no real evidence in the Life or in his own writings to suggest that Plotinus had any special knowledge of or with Egypt the fact that he later studied philosophy in the great city of is not necessarily evidence that he was an Egyptian.

His name is in form, but, in the 8rd century ce, this gives no clue to his ethnic origins. All that can be said with reasonable certainty is that was his normal language and that he had a Greek education. For all his originality, he remains in his way of and in his intellectual and religious loyalties. In his 78th year—he seems to have been rather a late developer—Plotinus felt an impulse to study philosophy and thus went to Alexandria. He attended the lectures of the most eminent professors in Alexandria at the time, which reduced him to a state of complete depression. In the end, a friend who understood what he wanted took him to hear the self-taught philosopher. ” When he had heard Ammonius speak, Plotinus said, “This is the man I was looking for, ” and stayed with him for 66 years. Ammonius is the most mysterious figure in ancient. He was, it seems, a lapsed Christian (yet even this is not quite certain), and the one or two remarks about his thought suggest a fairly commonplace sort of traditional. A philosopher who could attract such devotion from Plotinus and who may also have been the philosophical master of the great Christian theologian must have had something more to offer his pupils, but what it was is not known. That Plotinus stayed with him for 66 years is in no way surprising. One did not enter an ancient philosophical school to take courses and obtain a degree but rather to join in what might well be a lifelong cooperative following of the way to truth, goodness, and the ultimate liberation of the spirit. In his last years Plotinus, whose health had never been very good, suffered from a painful and repulsive sickness that Porphyry describes so imprecisely that one modern scholar has identified it as tuberculosis and another as a form of leprosy. The circle of friends had already broken up. Plotinus himself had sent Porphyry away to to recover from his depression. Amelius was in Syria. Only his physician, Eustochius, arrived in time to be with Plotinus at the end. His last words were either “Try to bring back the god in you to the divine in the All” or “I am trying to bring back the divine in us to the divine in the All. ” In either case, they express very simply the faith that he shared with all religious philosophers of late antiquity. Reviewed by Mark D. Nyvlt. Aristotle and Plotinus on the Intellect. Monism and Dualism Revisited. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 7567. Xiv + 768. Cloth, $79. 99. The question that Mark D. Nyvlt pursues in this book is whether Plotinus’s subordination of Nous to the One is justified.

His answer is “no. However, [End Page 985] due to the emphasis that he places on addressing the problem of the one and the many while discussing Nous, critical features of the internal structure of Nous are treated too quickly, and in some cases misleadingly. Nowhere is this more evident than in his chapter 7 on phantasia, which he includes to show that the cosmic procession and reversion take place at the psychic level and to draw similarities between phantasia and intelligible matter.